Table Of Contents
Table Of Contents

Transport Protocols


In the OSI reference model, the protocols of the transport layer provide host-to-host communication services for applications. They provide services such as connection-oriented communication, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing.

INET currently provides support for the TCP, UDP, SCTP and RTP transport layer protocols. INET nodes like StandardHost contain optional and replaceable instances of these protocols, like this:

tcp: <default("Tcp")> like ITcp if hasTcp;
udp: <default("Udp")> like IUdp if hasUdp;
sctp: <default("Sctp")> like ISctp if hasSctp;

As RTP is more specialized that the other ones (multimedia streaming), INET provides a separate node type, RtpHost, for modeling RTP traffic.



TCP protocol is the most widely used protocol of the Internet. It provides reliable, ordered delivery of stream of bytes from one application on one computer to another application on another computer. The baseline TCP protocol is described in RFC793, but other tens of RFCs contains modifications and extensions to the TCP. As a result, TCP is a complex protocol and sometimes it is hard to see how the different requirements interact with each other.

INET contains three implementations of the TCP protocol:

  • Tcp is the primary implementation, designed for readability, extensibility, and experimentation.

  • TcpLwip is a wrapper around the lwIP (Lightweight IP) library, a widely used open source TCP/IP stack designed for embedded systems.

  • TcpNsc wraps Network Simulation Cradle (NSC), a library that allows real world TCP/IP network stacks to be used inside a network simulator.

All three module types implement the ITcp interface and communicate with other layers through the same interface, so they can be interchanged and also mixed in the same network.


The Tcp simple module is the main implementation of the TCP protocol in the INET framework.

Tcp implements the following:

  • TCP state machine

  • initial sequence number selection according to the system clock.

  • window-based flow control

  • Window Scale option

  • Persistence timer

  • Keepalive timer

  • Transmission policies

  • RTT measurement for retransmission timeout (RTO) computation

  • Delayed ACK algorithm

  • Nagle’s algorithm

  • Silly window avoidance

  • Timestamp option

  • Congestion control schemes: Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, Westwood, Vegas, etc.

  • Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance

  • Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery

  • Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit

  • Selective Acknowledgments (SACK)

  • SACK based loss recovery

Several protocol features can be turned on/off with parameters like delayedAcksEnabled, nagleEnabled, limitedTransmitEnabled, increasedIWEnabled, sackSupport, windowScalingSupport, or timestampSupport.

The congestion control algorithm can be selected with the tcpAlgorithmClass parameter. For example, the following ini file fragment selects TCP Vegas:

**.tcp.tcpAlgorithmClass = "TcpVegas"

Values like "TcpVegas" name C++ classes. Indeed, Tcp can be extended with new congestion control schemes by implementing and registering them in C++.


lwIP is a light-weight implementation of the TCP/IP protocol suite that was originally written by Adam Dunkels of the Swedish Institute of Computer Science. The current development homepage is

The implementation targets embedded devices: it has very limited resource usage (it works “with tens of kilobytes of RAM and around 40 kilobytes of ROM”), and does not require an underlying OS.

The TcpLwip simple module is based on the 1.3.2 version of the lwIP sources.


  • delayed ACK

  • Nagle’s algorithm

  • round trip time estimation

  • adaptive retransmission timeout

  • SWS avoidance

  • slow start threshold

  • fast retransmit

  • fast recovery

  • persist timer

  • keep-alive timer


  • only MSS and TS TCP options are supported. The TS option is turned off by default, but can be enabled by defining LWIP_TCP_TIMESTAMPS to 1 in lwipopts.h.

  • fork must be true in the passive open command

  • The status request command (TCP_C_STATUS) only reports the local and remote addresses/ports of the connection and the MSS, SND.NXT, SND.WND, SND.WL1, SND.WL2, RCV.NXT, RCV.WND variables.


Network Simulation Cradle (NSC) is a tool that allow real-world TCP/IP network stacks to be used in simulated networks. The NSC project is created by Sam Jansen and available on NSC currently contains Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD and lwIP network stacks, although on 64-bit systems only Linux implementations can be built.

To use the TcpNsc module you should download the nsc-0.5.2.tar.bz2 package and follow the instructions in the <inet_root>/3rdparty/README file to build it.


Before generating the INET module, check that the opp_makemake call in the make file (<inet_root>/Makefile) includes the -DWITH_TCP_NSC argument. Without this option the TcpNsc module is not built. If you build the INET library from the IDE, it is enough to enable the TCP (NSC) project feature.


The module has the following parameters:

  • stackName: the name of the TCP implementation to be used. Possible values are:,,,, and (On the 64 bit systems, the and are available only).

  • stackBufferSize: the size of the receive and send buffer of one connection for selected TCP implementation. The NSC sets the wmem_max, rmem_max, tcp_rmem, tcp_wmem parameters to this value on linux TCP implementations. For details, you can see the NSC documentation.


  • Because the kernel code is not reentrant, NSC creates a record containing the global variables of the stack implementation. By default there is room for 50 instance in this table, so you can not create more then 50 instance of TcpNsc. You can increase the NUM_STACKS constant in num_stacks.h and recompile NSC to overcome this limitation.

  • The TcpNsc module does not supprt TCP_TRANSFER_OBJECT data transfer mode.

  • The MTU of the network stack fixed to 1500, therefore MSS is 1460.

  • TCP_C_STATUS command reports only local/remote addresses/ports and current window of the connection.


The UDP protocol is a very simple datagram transport protocol, which basically makes the services of the network layer available to the applications. It performs packet multiplexing and demultiplexing to ports and some basic error detection only.

The Udp simple module implements the UDP protocol. There is a module interface (IUdp) that defines the gates of the Udp component. In the StandardHost node, the UDP component can be any module implementing that interface.


The Sctp module implements the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). Like TCP, SCTP provides reliable ordered data delivery over an ureliable network. The most prominent feature of SCTP is the capability of transmitting multiple streams of data at the same time between two end points that have established a connection.


The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a transport layer protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used extensively in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications including WebRTC, television services and web-based push-to-talk features.

The RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). RTCP provides out-of-band statistics and control information for an RTP session.

INET provides the following modules:

  • Rtp implements the RTP protocol

  • Rtcp implements the RTCP protocol