Visualizing Routing Tables¶

Goals¶

In a complex network topology, it is difficult to see how a packet would be routed because the relevant data is scattered among network nodes and hidden in their routing tables. INET contains support for visualization of routing tables and can display routing information graphically in a concise way. Using visualization, it is often possible to understand routing in a simulation without looking into individual routing tables. The visualization currently supports IPv4.

This showcase contains three simulation models of increasing complexity, each demonstrating different features of routing table visualization.

INET version: 3.6

In INET, the RoutingTableVisualizer module (included in the network as part of IntegratedVisualizer) is responsible for visualizing routing table entries.

The visualizer basically annotates network links with labeled arrows that connect source nodes to next hop nodes. The module visualizes those routing table entries that participate in the routing of a given set of destination addresses, by default the addresses of all interfaces of all nodes in the network. That is, it selects the best (longest prefix) matching routes for all destination addresses from each routing table, and shows them as arrows that point to the next hop. Note that one arrow might need to represent several routing entries, for example when distinct prefixes are routed towards the same next hop.

Routing table entries are represented visually by solid arrows. An arrow going from a source node represents a routing table entry in the source node’s routing table. The endpoint node of the arrow is the next hop in the visualized routing table entry. By default, the routing entry is displayed on the arrows in the following format: destination/mask -> gateway (interface)

The format can be changed by setting the visualizer’s labelFormat parameter.

Filtering is also possible. The nodeFilter parameter controls which nodes’ routing tables should be visualized (by default, all nodes), and the destinationFilter parameter selects the set of destination nodes to consider (again, by default all nodes.)

The visualizer reacts to changes. For example, when a routing protocol changes a routing entry, or an IP address gets assigned to an interface by DHCP, the visualizer automatically updates the visualizations according to the specified filters. This feature is very useful, e.g. for the simulation of mobile ad-hoc networks.

Displaying all routing tables¶

The following example demonstrates how to enable the visualization of routing tables, and how the visualization looks like. The simulation can be run by choosing the DisplayingAll configuration from the ini file. The network for the simulation contains two StandardHost’s, each connected to a Router. IP addresses are assigned by the Ipv4NetworkConfigurator module, which also fills in the routing tables automatically. The visualizer module is an IntegratedVisualizer which contains all available visualizers as submodules.

The configuration contains one line, which enables the visualization of routing tables with the displayRoutingTables parameter:

*.visualizer.displayRoutingTables = true


All other parameters of the visualizer are left on default.

When the simulation is run, the network looks like this:

Note that IP addresses are displayed above the nodes. These annotations has nothing to do with the RoutingTableVisualizer; they are displayed because we configured it in InterfaceTableVisualizer to improve clarity.

Here are the routing tables of the two hosts and the router, with the visualized entries highlighted:

Node RoutingTableVisualizationDisplayingAllShowcase.hostA
-- Routing table --
10.0.0.0         255.255.255.252  *                eth0 (10.0.0.1) 0
*                *                10.0.0.2         eth0 (10.0.0.1) 0

Node RoutingTableVisualizationDisplayingAllShowcase.hostB
-- Routing table --
10.0.0.4         255.255.255.252  *                eth0 (10.0.0.5) 0
*                *                10.0.0.6         eth0 (10.0.0.5) 0

Node RoutingTableVisualizationDisplayingAllShowcase.router
-- Routing table --
10.0.0.0         255.255.255.252  *                eth0 (10.0.0.2) 0
10.0.0.4         255.255.255.252  *                eth1 (10.0.0.6) 0


The destination, netmask, gateway, and the interface from the highlighted entries are indicated on the arrows.

Note that in the OMNeT++ Qtenv GUI you can click on an arrow, and the corresponding routing table entry will be shown in the inspector window.

Filtering routing table entries¶

By default, the best matching routing table entries from all routing tables towards all destinations are visualized. This visualization can leave the network cluttered with arrows. It is possible to narrow the selection of visualized routing tables with filter parameters. The goal of this section is to demonstrate the use of the nodeFilter and destinationFilter parameters.

The section contains two example simulations, which use a more complex network compared to the simulation in the previous section. The simulations demonstrate the visualization when it is unfiltered and when it is filtered. The network looks like the following:

It consists of a router connected to a switch. Two StandardHost’s are connected to the switch, and two additional StandardHost’s are connected to the router.

Unfiltered routing table visualization¶

The example simulation can be run by choosing the Unfiltered configuration from the ini file. The defaults of the nodeFilter and destinationFilter parameters are "*", which means the best matching routing entries towards all destinations from all routing tables are visualized. With the default settings, the network looks like the following:

You might have noticed that the arrows don’t go through the switch. That is because L2 devices, such as switches and access points, don’t have IP addresses or routing tables. They are effectively transparent for the route visualization algorithm. The visualizer could, in theory, know that the packets will take a path that goes through the switch. However, in the general case, there may be multiple interconnected switches and multiple paths that the packets can take, making the visualization a complicated issue.

Filtered routing table visualization¶

The example simulation can be run by choosing the Filtered configuration from the ini file. This example simulation only visualizes the routes going from host2 to host3. First, the destinationFilter parameter is set to host3. To narrow down the visualized routes to the ones that lead from host2, the nodeFilter parameter is specified as "host2 or host3 or router". (One could also write "not(host1 or host4)" for the same effect.) Note that router needs to be included because the route from host2 to host3 leads through it.

The visualized routing entries look like the following:

The visualizer’s parameters can be changed in the runtime environment, and the changes take effect immediately. Just select the RoutingTableVisualizer module, and the parameters are listed in the inspector panel:

Visualizing changing routing tables¶

The examples so far have had static routes, but in many scenarios, routing tables change dynamically. In the following example simulation, the routing tables are changed by AODV (Advanced On-Demand Vector Routing Protocol). The simulation can be run by choosing the Dynamic configuration from the ini file.

The network contains a series of AodvRouter’s. These are mobile hosts that have AODV and IP forwarding enabled. Six of the hosts are laid out in a chain and are stationary. Their communication ranges are specified so that each host can only reach the adjacent hosts. destinationHost moves up and down along the chain and is only in the communication range of one or two nearby hosts.

We want the AODV protocol to configure the routing tables, so the network configurator is instructed not to add static routes. sourceHost is configured to ping destinationHost. Since each host is capable of reaching the adjacent hosts only, the ping packets are relayed to destinationHost through the chain. As the network topology changes because of node mobility, the AODV protocol dynamically configures the routing tables. To reduce clutter, we set the destinationFilter parameter of the visualizer to "destinationHost".

The following animation depicts what happens when the simulation is run.

When destinationHost starts to move downwards, packets get routed along the chain to the host that is currently adjacent to destinationHost. Finally, this host relays the packets to destinationHost. As the node moves, routing tables are kept up to date by AODV to relay the packets along the chain to destinationHost. On the way back, the lower hosts are not taking part of the packet relay, and the unused entries remain in their routing tables for a while, then they time out and are removed. When destinationHost gets to the top of the scene, the process starts over again. The visualizer continually reacts to changes in the routing tables and updates the visualization accordingly.